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Research Articles

Copyright notice: the articles linked below are being provided in response to requests for personal copies. No other uses are allowed, thank you.

Rickard, T. C., and Pan, S. C. (under review). Retrieval practice on pairs, triplets, and facts: when and why does transfer occur? Preprint available at Open Science Framework.

Pan, S. C., Lovelett, J., Stoeckenius, D., and Rickard, T. C (2019). Conditions of highly specific learning through cued recall. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (online first). doi: 10.3758/s13423-019-01593-x

Pan, S. C., Tajran, J., Lovelett, J., Osuna, J., and Rickard, T. C (2019). Does interleaved practice enhance foreign language learning? Journal of Educational Psychology (online first). doi: 10.1037/edu0000336.

Pan, S. C., Hutter, S., D’Andrea, D., Unwalla, D., and Rickard, T. C. (2018). In search of transfer following cued recall practice: the case of biology concepts. Applied Cognitive Psychology (online first). doi: 10.1002/acp.3506.

Pan, S. C., and Rickard, T. C. (2018). Transfer of test-enhanced learning: meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin 144(7), 710-756. doi: 10.1037/bul0000151

Pan, S. C., and Rickard, T. C. (2017). Does retrieval practice enhance learning and transfer relative to restudy for term-definition facts? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 23(3), 278-292. doi: 10.1037/xap0000124

Rickard, T. C., and Pan, S. C. (2017). A dual memory theory of the testing effect. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 25(3), 847-869. doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1298-4

Rickard, T. C., and Pan, S. C. (2017). Time for considering the possibility that sleep plays no unique role in motor memory consolidation. Psychological Bulletin 143(4), 454-458. doi: 10.1037/bul0000094

Pan, S. C., Gopal, A., and Rickard, T. C. (2016). Testing with feedback yields potent, but piecewise, learning of history and biology facts. Journal of Educational Psychology 108(4), 563-575. doi: 10.1037/edu0000074

Pan, S. C., Wong, C. M., Potter, Z. E., Mejia, J., and Rickard, T. C. (2016). Does test-enhanced learning transfer for triple associates? Memory & Cognition 44(1), 24-36. doi: 10.3758/s13421-015-0547-x

Pan, S. C., Rubin, B. R., and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 21(4), 356-369. doi: 10.1037/xap0000062

Pan, S. C. and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Sleep and motor memory: is there room for consolidation? Psychological Bulletin 141(4), 812-834. doi: 10.1037/bul0000009

Pan, S. C., Pashler, H., Potter, Z. E., and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Testing enhances learning across a range of episodic memory abilities. Journal of Memory and Language 83, 53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2015.04.001

Jones, A. C., Wardlow, L., Pan, S. C., Zepeda, C., Heyman, G. D., Dunlosky, J., and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Beyond the rainbow: retrieval practice leads to better learning than does rainbow writing. Educational Psychology Review 27(3), 385-400. doi: 10.1007/s10648-015-9330-6

Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings

Walker, D., Pan, S. C., Modir, S., and Rickard, T. C. (2014). Sleep enhancement of texture discrimination performance is dependent on training paradigm. Journal of Vision 14(10), 664. doi: 10.1167/14.10.664

Instructional Guides

Pan, S. C., and Agarwal, P. K. (June 2018). Retrieval practice and transfer of learning: fostering student application of knowledge. Teacher and student practice guide. Available at:

Other Scientific Publications

Pan, S. C. (January 2019). A touch to remember. In G. Cook (Ed.), Scientific American. Available at:

Pan, S. C. (October 2016). Sleep between sessions: a study power move. In G. Cook (Ed.), Scientific American. Available at:

Pan, S. C. (August 2015). The interleaving effect: mixing it up boosts learning. In G. Cook (Ed.), Scientific American. Available at:


For a list of recent talks and conference presentations, please see my CV.